Original Research

Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

Stefaan Swarts, David King, Zane Simpson, Jan Havenga, Leila Goedhals-Gerber
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management | Vol 6, No 1 | a61 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v6i1.61 | © 2012 Stefaan Swarts, David King, Zane Simpson, Jan Havenga, Leila Goedhals-Gerber | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 30 November 2012 | Published: 30 November 2012

About the author(s)

Stefaan Swarts, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
David King, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Zane Simpson, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Jan Havenga, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Leila Goedhals-Gerber, Stellenbosch University, South Africa

Full Text:

PDF (141KB)

Share this article

Bookmark and Share


The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.


No related keywords in the metadata.


Total abstract views: 3156
Total article views: 14435


Crossref Citations

1. Reducing national freight logistics costs risk in a high-oil-price environment
Jan Havenga, Zane Simpson
The International Journal of Logistics Management  vol: 25  issue: 1  first page: 35  year: 2014  
doi: 10.1108/IJLM-11-2012-0133